Physics, materials, devices, and systems are investigated using light and electromagnetism generally, for applications including sensing, imaging, communications, computing, energy, biology, medicine, security, and information processing. Scientific work ranges from basic quantum mechanical processes in nanostructures to planetary science, incorporating technologies from nano- and micro-scale fabrication through radio and optical fiber communications to environmental probes. Examples include:

Photonics: Devices, systems, and applications involving electromagnetic waves and in particular, light. Applications include communicating information, where photonics plays a crucial role, medical instrumentation, imaging, sensing, and (photovoltaic) solar power generation.