1. M. E. Hellman, *Learning
with Finite Memory*, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Department of
Electrical Engineering, 1969.

2. M. E. Hellman and I. Palocz, "The
Effect of Neighboring Conductors on the Currents and Fields in Plane Parallel
Transmission Lines," *IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Technique*,
Vol. MTT-17, May 1969, pp. 254-259.

3. T. M. Cover and M. E. Hellman, "The
Two-Armed Bandit Problem with Time-Invariant Finite Memory," *IEEE
Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-16, March 1970, pp. 185-195.

4. M. E. Hellman and T. M. Cover, "Learning
with Finite Memory," *Ann. of Math. Stat.,* Vol. 41, June 1970,
pp. 765-782.

5. M. E. Hellman and T. M. Cover, "Finite Memory Decision Schemes,"
*Problmy Peredachi Informatsii*, Vol. 6, 1970, pp. 21-30, (In Russian).

6. T. M. Cover and M. E. Hellman, "Finite
Memory Hypothesis Testing: Comments on a Critique," *IEEE Trans.
on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-16, July 1970, pp. 496-497, (Correspondence).

7. M. E. Hellman and J. Raviv, "Probability
of Error, Equivocation, and the Chernoff Bound," *IEEE Trans. on
Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-16, July 1970, pp. 368-372.

8. M. E. Hellman, "The Nearest Neighbor Classification Rule with a Reject
Option," *IEEE Trans. on Sys. Sci. and Cybernetics*, Vol. SSC-6,
July 1970, pp. 179-185.

9. M. E. Hellman and T. M. Cover, "On
Memory Saved by Randomization," *Ann. Math Stat.*, Vol. 42,
1971, pp. 1075-1078.

10. R. A. Flower and M. E. Hellman, "Hypothesis
Testing with Finite Memory in Finite Time," *IEEE Trans. on Info.
Theory*, Vol. IT-18, May 1972, pp. 429-431, (Correspondence).

11. M. E. Hellman, "The
Effects of Randomization Finite Memory Decision Schemes," *IEEE
Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-18, July 1972, pp. 499-502.

12. J. A. Horos and M. E. Hellman, "A
Confidence Model for Finite-Memory Learning Systems," *IEEE Trans.
on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-18, Nov. 1972, pp. 811-813, (Correspondence).

13. M. E. Hellman and T. M. Cover, "A
Review of Recent Results on Learning with Finite Memory," Special Volume
of *Problems of Control and Information Theory* containing selected papers
from the Second Int'l. Symp on Info. Theory, Publishing House of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1973.

14. M. E. Hellman and T. M. Cover, "Obucheniye c Konechnoy Pamyatyu,"
*MATEMATIKA*, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1973, pp. 137-156. (This is a Russian translation
of #4 above).

15. M. E. Hellman and T. M. Cover, "Ekonomia Pamyati c Pomoshchyu Randomizatsii,"
*MATEMATIKA*, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1973, pp. 125-128. (This is a Russian translation
of #9 above.)

16. M. E. Hellman, "Finite
Memory Algorithms for Estimating the Mean of a Gaussian Distribution,"
*IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-20, May 1974, pp. 382-384 (Correspondence).

17. M. E. Hellman, "On
Using Natural Redundancy for Error Detection," *IEEE Trans. on Comm.*,
Vol. COM-22, Oct. 1974, pp. 1690-1693 (Correspondence).

18. A. B. Carleial and M. E. Hellman, "Bistable
Behavior of ALOHA-Type Systems," *IEEE Trans. on Comm.*, Vol.
COM-23, April 1975, pp. 401-410.

19. M. E. Hellman, "Error
Detection in the Presence of Synchronization Loss," *IEEE Trans.
on Comm.*, Vol. COM-23, May 1975, pp. 538-539.

20. C. R. Davis and M. E. Hellman, "On
Tree Coding with a Fidelity Criterion," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*,
Vol. IT-21, July 1975, pp. 373-378.

21. M. E. Hellman, "Convolutional
Source Encoding," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-21,
Nov. 1975, pp. 651-656.

22. T. M. Cover, M. A. Freedman and M. E. Hellman, "Optimal
Finite Memory Learning Algorithms for the Finite Sample Problem," *Information
and Control*, Vol. 30, January 1976, pp. 49-85.

23. S.K. Leung-Yan-Cheong and M. E. Hellman, "Concerning
a Bound on Undetected Error Rate," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*,
Vol. IT-22, March 1976, pp. 235-237 (Correspondence).

24. W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "New
Directions in Cryptography," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*,
Vol. IT-22, Nov. 1976, pp. 644-654 (Invited Paper).

25. M. E. Hellman, "An
Extension of the Shannon Theory Approach to Cryptography," *IEEE
Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-23, May 1977, pp. 289-294.

26. A. B. Carleial and M. E. Hellman, "A
Note on Wyner's Wiretap Channel," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*,
Vol. IT-23, May 1977, pp. 387-390 (Correspondence).

27. W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "Exhaustive
Cryptanalysis of the NBS Data Encryption Standard," *Computer*,
June 1977, pp. 74-84.

28. S. C. Pohlig and M. E. Hellman, "An
Improved Algorithm for Computing Logarithms Over GF(p) and its Cryptographic
Significance," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-24, January
1978, pp. 106-110.

29. S. K. Leung-Yan-Cheong and M. E. Hellman, "The
Gaussian Wire-Tap Channel," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol.
IT-24, July 1978, pp. 451-456.

30. R. C. Merkle and M. E. Hellman, "Hiding
Information and Signatures in Trap Door Knapsacks," *IEEE Trans.
on Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-24, September 1978, pp. 525-536.

31. M. E. Hellman, "An
Overview of Public Key Cryptography," *IEEE Communications Society
Magazine*, Vol. 16, Nov. 1978, pp.24-32 (Invited Paper).

32. W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "Privacy
and Authentication: An Introduction to Cryptography," *Proceedings
of the IEEE*, Vol. 67, March 1979, pp. 397-427 (Invited Paper).

33. E. Verriest and M. E. Hellman, "Convolutional
Encoding for Wyner's Wiretap Channel," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*,
Vol. IT-25, March 1979, pp. 234-236.

34. M. E. Hellman, "On Foiling Computer Crime," *IEEE Spectrum*,
July 1979, pp. 31-41 (see pp. 32-39 for Hellman's portion).

35. M. E. Hellman, "The Mathematics of Public Key Cryptography,"
*Scientific American*, Vol. 241, No. 2, August 1979, pp. 146-157.

36. M. E. Hellman, "A
Cryptanalytic Time-Memory Tradeoff," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*,
Vol. 26, July 1980, pp. 401-406.

37. R. C. Merkle and M. E. Hellman, "On the Security of Multiple Encryption,"
*Comm. of the ACM*, Vol. 24, No. 7, July 1981, pp. 465-467.

38. M. E. Hellman, "Another Cryptanalytic Attack on `A Cryptosystem for
Multiple Communication'," *Information Processing Letters*, Vol.
12, #4, August 13, 1981, pp. 182-183.

39. W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "Privacy & Authentication: An Introduction
to Cryptography," *The Security of Data in Networks*, Donald W.
Davies, ed., IEEE Computer Society Publications, 1981. (This is a reprint of
#32 above.)

40. W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "Exhaustive Cryptanalysis of the NBS
Data Encryption Standard," *The Security of Data in Networks*, Donald
W. Davies, ed. IEEE Computer Society Publications, 1981. (This is a reprint
of #27 above.)

41. W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "New Directions in Cryptography,"
*The Security of Data in Networks*, Donald W. Davies, ed. IEEE Computer
Society Publications, 1981. (This is a reprint of #24 above.)

42. R. C. Merkle and M. E. Hellman, "Hiding Information and Signatures
in Trap Door Knapsacks," *The Security of Data in Networks*, Donald
W. Davies, ed. IEEE Computer Society Publications, 1981. (This is a reprint
of #30 above.)

43. S. C. Pohlig and M. E. Hellman, "An Improved Algorithm for Computing
Logarithms Over GF(p) and its Cryptographic Significance," *The Security
of Data in Networks*, Donald W. Davies, ed. IEEE Computer Society Publications,
1981. (This is a reprint of #28 above.)

44. W. Diffie and M. E. Hellman, "Privacy & Authentication: An Introduction
to Cryptography," *Advances in Computer System Security*, pp. 217-247,
Rein Turn, editor, Artech House, Dedham, MA, 1981. (This is a reprint of #32
above.)

45. E. Karnin, J. Greene and M. Hellman, "On
Secret Sharing Systems," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol.
IT-29, January 1983, pp. 35-41.

46. M. E. Hellman, "An Overview of Public Key Cryptography," *Advances
in Data Communications Management*, Heyden & Son, 1983. (This is a reprint
of #31 above.)

47. M. E. Hellman and W. Diffie, "An Introduction to Cryptography,"
*Advances in Data Communications Management*, Heyden & Son, 1983.
(This is a reprint of paper #32 above.)

48. M. E. Hellman and E.D. Karnin, "The
Largest Super-Increasing Subset of a Random Set," *IEEE Trans. on
Info. Theory*, Vol. IT-29, January 1983, pp. 146-148.

49. M. E. Hellman and J. M. Reyneri, "Fast Computation of Discrete Logarithms
in GF(q)," *Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO 82*, Chaum
et al, ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1983, pp. 3-13.

50. M. E. Hellman and J. M. Reyneri, "Drainage and the DES," *Advances
in Cryptology: Proceedings of CRYPTO 82*, Chaum et al, ed., Plenum Press,
New York, 1983, pp. 129-131.

51. M. E. Hellman, "An Overview of Public Key Cryptography," *IEEE
Communications Society's Tutorials in Modern Communications*, Computer Science
Press, 1983. (This is a reprint of #31 above.)

52. M. E. Hellman, "On the Inevitability and Prevention of Nuclear War,"
*The Tau Beta Pi Bent* (the magazine of the American National Engineering
Honor Society), Vol. 76, No. 1, pp. 28-31, Winter 1985.

53. M. E. Hellman, "On the Inevitability and Prevention of Nuclear War,"
*The Stanford Engineer*, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 18-23, 1985. (This is a reprint
of #52 above.)

54. M. E. Hellman, "Beyond War," *Nytt fran Foreningen Svenska
Ingenjorer Mot Karnvapen*, 1985, Nr 6 pp. 16-19, 1985. (This is a reprint
of #52 above.)

55. M. E. Hellman, "Encryption," *IEEE ElectroTechnology Review
1986*, pp. 87-88, 1986. (Invited paper.)

56. M. E. Hellman, "On the Inevitability and Prevention of Nuclear War,"
*Peace Research Reviews*, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 38-48, 1986. (This is a
reprint of #52 above.)

57. R. Winternitz and M. E. Hellman, "Chosen-Key Attacks on a Block Cipher,"
*Cryptologia*, vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 16-20, January 1987.

58. M. E. Hellman, "Commercial Encryption," *IEEE Network: The
Magazine of Computer Communications*, vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 6-10, April 1987.
(Invited paper.)

59. Sergei P. Kapitza and Martin E. Hellman, "A Message to the Scientific
Community," Preface to *Breakthrough: Emerging New Thinking*, Walker
and Co., New York, 1988, pp. xi-xx.

60. Sergei P. Kapitza and Martin E. Hellman, "Nayuka i Covremenni Mir,"
Preface to *Proriv: Stanovleniye Novogo Mishleniya*, Progress, Moscow,
1987, pp. 7-19. (This is a Russian translation of #59 above.)

61. Martin E. Hellman, "Nuclear War: Inevitable or Preventable?"
in *Breakthrough: Emerging New Thinking*, Walker and Co., New York, 1988,
pp. 80-85.

62. Martin E. Hellman, "Yadernaya Voina: Neizbezhna ili Predotvratima?,"
in *Proriv: Stanovleniye Novogo Mishleniya*, Progress, Moscow, 1987,
pp. 122-129. (This is a Russian translation of #61 above.)

63. Sergei P. Kapitza and Martin E. Hellman, "Scientists Must Help Stop
the Arms Race," *The Scientist*, vol. 2, No. 2, page 22, January
25, 1988. (Adapted from publication #59 above.)

64. Martin E. Hellman, "Harnessing Technology," *IEEE Spectrum*,
vol. 25, February 1988, page 24.

65. H. R. Amirazizi and M. E. Hellman, "Time-Memory-Processor
Tradeoffs," *IEEE Trans. on Info. Theory*, Vol. 34, pp. 505-512,
May 1988.

66. M. E. Hellman, "The Mathematics of Public Key Cryptography,"
*Scientific American: Trends in Computing*, vol. 1, pp. 78-87, 1988.
(Updated version of publication #35 above.)

67. M. E. Hellman, "The Nearest Neighbor Classification Rule with a Reject
Option," in *Nearest Neighbor (NN) Norms: Pattern Classification Techniques*,
Belur V. Dasarathy, Editor, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1991. (This is a reprint
of #8 above.)

68. A. B. Carleial and M. E. Hellman, "Bistable Behavior of ALOHA-Type
Systems," in *Multiple Access Communications*, Norman Abramson,
Editor, IEEE Press, 1993. (This is a reprint of #18 above.)

69. M. E. Hellman, "Responses to NIST's Proposal," *Communications
of the ACM*, vol. 35, No. 7, pp. 47-49, July 1992.

70. S. K. Langford and M. E. Hellman, "Linear-Differential Cryptanalysis,"
in *Advances in Cryptology: Proceedings of Crypto 94*, Yvo G. Desmedt,
Editor, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Lecture Notes in Computer Science #839, pp.
17-25, 1994.

71. M. E. Hellman "Resist Not Evil,"
*World Without Violence*, Arun Gandhi, Editor, M. K. Gandhi Institute
for Nonviolence,1994.

72. M. E. Hellman, "Sending Secret Messages," in *Scientific American:
Triumph of Discovery*, Holt, New York, pp. 56-59, 1995.

73. M. E. Hellman, “An Overview of Public Key Cryptography,” IEEE Communications Magazine 50th Anniversary Issue: Landmark 10 Papers, May 2002, pp. 42-49 (Invited Paper. This is a reprint of #31 above, with additional material added.).

74. M. E. Hellman, “Risk
Analysis of Nuclear Deterrence,” *The Bent of Tau Beta Pi*
(the magazine of the American National Engineering Honor Society), Vol. 99,
No. 2, pp. 14-22, Spring 2008.

75. M. E. Hellman, “How
risky is nuclear optimism?,” *Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists*
Vol. 67, No. 2, pp. 47-56, March 2011.

76. M. E. Hellman, “Fifty
Years After the Cuban Missile Crisis:
Time to Stop Bluffing at Nuclear Poker,” A briefing paper of
*The Federation of American Scientists* and *The Nuclear Age Peace Foundation*,
October 2012.

77. M. E. Hellman, “Cybersecurity,
Nuclear Security, Alan Turing, and Illogical Logic,”
*Communications of the ACM*, Vol. 60, No. 12, pp. 52-59, December 2017. This is a written
version of my ACM Turing Lecture
(video of full lecture)
and was accompanied
by a
short (6 minute) video.

78. M. E. Hellman, “Rethinking National Security,” This is a draft paper, not yet submitted for publication.

Books:

1. Anatoly A. Gromyko and Martin E. Hellman editors, *Breakthrough: Emerging
New Thinking*, Walker and Co., New York, 1988. The entire book is available
on this web site, free of charge. Before downloading the files, please read the
limitations on copying and use.

2. Anatoly A. Gromyko and Martin
E. Hellman editors, *Proriv: Stanovleniye Novogo Mishleniya*, Progress,
Moscow, 1987. (This is a Russian translation of #1 above.)

3. Dorothie and Martin
Hellman, *A New Map for Relationships:
Creating True Love at Home & Peace on the Planet*, New Map Publishing,
Stanford, CA, 2016. The entire book is
available in PDF
on this web site, free of charge. It is available in hardcover, paperback, and
other e-book formats from
Amazon,
Barnes & Noble, and other booksellers.

Return to home page.