Publication # 191

D. A. B. Miller, "Dense Two-Dimensional Integration of Optoelectronics and Electronics for Interconnections," presented at the Critical Reviews Conference of SPIE’s Symp. on Photonics West, Optoelectronics ’98, San Jose, CA (January 24-30, 1998). Published in Heterogeneous Integration: Systems on a Chip, Anis Husain and Mahmoud Fallahi, Eds. SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Engineering, Vol. CR70 (SPIE, Bellingham, 1998), 80-109.

Optics has many features, beyond those already exploited in long-distance fiber communications, that make it interesting for interconnections at short distance, including dense optical interconnections directly to silicon integrated circuit chips. Hybrid technologies, such as solder-bump bonding, have recently been successfully used to attach two-dimensional arrays of optical detectors, emitters, and modulators to silicon electronics. Quantum well modulator or self-electro-optic-effect devices (SEEDs), and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have received particularly strong attention as candidates for the necessary arrayed output devices. This article summarizes the research and prospects in these fields.


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