Biological properties can be measured and altered using electronics, magnetics, photonics, sensors, circuits, and algorithms. Applications range from basic biological science through clinical medicine, and enable new discoveries, diagnoses, and treatments by creating novel devices, systems, and analyses. Examples include:
- Measuring molecular concentrations,
- Measuring and altering activity of electrically-excitable cells such as neurons,
- Building implantable bio-sensors and bio-stimulators,
- DNA sequencing,
- THz and differential phase contrast x-ray imaging,
- Wireless sensing and powering,
- Aiding in the operation of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.