With creative innovations and significant technical effort, semiconductor technology scaling is now continuing deeper into nm dimensions. The ultimate lateral dimensions, or ultimate number of layers in 3D stacking may be under debate, but not the fact that there are fundamental or practical (technical and economic) limits to exponential improvements. The industry is already transitioning towards an era in which innovations are enabling advantages for just one or two generations. This talk presents an overview of scaling showing examples of how innovations in materials, devices and design-technology co-optimization enabled scaling and continue to do so towards the 5nm and 3 nm nodes. We also discuss some of the fundamental limits of pitch scaling as well as perspectives on beyond pitch scaling approaches, 3D stacking and heterogeneous and system level integration that will allow to continue to enhance system capabilities, and how emerging applications such as neuromorphic computing impact and drive hardware requirements and development, and open new growth opportunities.