SmartGrid

Vincent Poor, Princeton University [SmartGrid]

Topic: 
Theme: smart grids and energy systems
Abstract / Description: 

Smart grid involves the imposition of an advanced cyber layer atop the physical layer of the electricity grid, in order to improve the efficiency, security and cost of electricity use and distribution, and to allow for greater decentralization of power generation and management. This cyber-physical setting motivates a number of problems in network analysis, and this talk will briefly describe several of these problems together with approaches to solving them. These include competitive privacy in which multiple grid entities seek an optimal trade-off between privacy lost and utility gained from information sharing; distributed inference in which both the cyber and physical network topologies have roles to play in achieving consensus; real-time topology identification which helps in the mitigation of cascading failures; and attack construction which seeks an understanding of optimal strategies for attacking the grid in support of the design of effective countermeasures.


 

The SmartGrid seminar is scheduled at 1:30 pm on various dates throughout the Winter quarter. These speakers are renowned experts in power and energy systems, and we believe they will bring novel insights and fruitful discussions to Stanford. This seminar is offered as a 1 unit seminar course, CEE 272T/EE292T for interested students. This course can be repeated for credit for the students.

 

 

Yours sincerely,

SmartGrid Seminar Organization Team,

Ram Rajagopal, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Chin-Woo Tan, Director, Stanford Smart Grid Lab
Wenyuan Tang, Postdoctoral Scholar, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Emre Kara, Associate Staff Scientist, SLAC

Date and Time: 
Thursday, March 16, 2017 - 1:30pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 300

On Challenges in Wholesale Electricity Market Design [SmartGrid]

Topic: 
On Challenges in Wholesale Electricity Market Design: from Renewables to Strategic Interaction
Abstract / Description: 

Wholesale electricity markets for the bulk power systems are networked marketplaces for buying and selling energy, mediated by an independent system operator (ISO). Market design paradigms are not particularly suited to handle the deepening penetration of renewable supply. I will begin by discussing some challenges in forward market design that stem from the variability characteristics of renewables such as wind and solar resources. Then, I will present recent work on two possible ways to tackle that challenge — a stochastic economic dispatch based contingent pricing scheme and a centralized mechanism for trading cash-settled call options. In the second half of the talk, I will change gears and discuss the challenges in electricity market design that arise due to the strategic interaction among the generators. In this vein, I will discuss some recent results on a networked Cournot/Stackelberg model that offers insights into ways to mitigate the effects of strategic interaction in such networked markets.


 

The SmartGrid seminar is scheduled at 1:30 pm on various dates throughout the Winter quarter. These speakers are renowned experts in power and energy systems, and we believe they will bring novel insights and fruitful discussions to Stanford. This seminar is offered as a 1 unit seminar course, CEE 272T/EE292T for interested students. This course can be repeated for credit for the students.

 

 

Yours sincerely,

SmartGrid Seminar Organization Team,

Ram Rajagopal, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Chin-Woo Tan, Director, Stanford Smart Grid Lab
Wenyuan Tang, Postdoctoral Scholar, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Emre Kara, Associate Staff Scientist, SLAC

Date and Time: 
Thursday, March 9, 2017 - 1:30pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 300

Understanding the Value of Distributed Energy Resources: New Methods and Insights for Electricity Economics, Planning, and Operations [SmartGrid]

Topic: 
Understanding the Value of Distributed Energy Resources: New Methods and Insights for Electricity Economics, Planning, and Operations
Abstract / Description: 

Distributed energy resources (DERs), including distributed generation, storage, and demand response, create new options for the provision of electricity services. As detailed in the recently released MIT Utility of the Future study, these distributed resources compete with and complement one another as well as conventional generation resources and network assets. In addition, many DERs exhibit tradeoffs between "locational value" (deriving from loss mitigation, network capacity deferral, constraint mitigation, etc.) and economies of unit scale. New electricity system modeling tools are needed to evaluate the value of DERs and provide insights into how, where, and why DERs can be economically attractive contributors to an affordable and reliable electricity system. This seminar will describe a new electricity resource capacity planning tool, "GenX," suitable for analyzing the role and value of DERs in power systems and present insights from initial case studies.


 

The SmartGrid seminar is scheduled at 1:30 pm on various dates throughout the Winter quarter. These speakers are renowned experts in power and energy systems, and we believe they will bring novel insights and fruitful discussions to Stanford. This seminar is offered as a 1 unit seminar course, CEE 272T/EE292T for interested students. This course can be repeated for credit for the students.

Yours sincerely,

SmartGrid Seminar Organization Team,

Ram Rajagopal, Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Chin-Woo Tan, Director, Stanford Smart Grid Lab
Wenyuan Tang, Postdoctoral Scholar, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Emre Kara, Associate Staff Scientist, SLAC

Date and Time: 
Thursday, February 23, 2017 - 12:00pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 111

Behind the Integration of DER: Policy, Analytics, and Market Design [SmartGrid]

Topic: 
Behind the Integration of DER: Policy, Analytics, and Market Design
Abstract / Description: 

California utilities are integrating distributed energy resources (DER) into their system planning and operations in new and progressive ways. If successful, they will rely on DER (e.g., solar paired with batteries) when they plan and operate their systems, displacing the need for traditional distribution infrastructure (e.g. conductors, capacitors). If they are unsuccessful, they will likely build redundant systems to serve power if/when DER are not available. The difference between success and failure amounts to a substantial impact on the value of DER and efficiency of investment in the grid. This seminar will introduce the policy, analytics, and market design behind the integration of DER, as well as a discussion of the critical role of technology.

Date and Time: 
Thursday, February 9, 2017 - 1:30pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 300

Breaker to Control Center Integration & Automation: PCO&O [SmartGrid]

Topic: 
Breaker to Control Center Integration & Automation: PCO&O
Abstract / Description: 

Recent technological advances in protection, control and optimization are enabling a more automated power system. Research efforts are focused on integrating these technologies into a seamless and cyber secure infrastructure for protection, control and operation. This infrastructure is the basis for accommodating and providing robust solutions to new problems arising from the integration of renewables, increased uncertainty and steeper ramp rates. The system must be secure against malicious cyber-attacks at every level. We discuss the infrastructure at the substation level where we build upon the dynamic state estimation based protection (EBP) and a centralized substation protection integrated with distributed dynamic state estimation and all substation control, operation and optimization functions. All functions are model based: we discuss an automated creation of the models required at each level of a hierarchical control, operation and optimization functions. The substation level system is extended to a subsystem/agent level for control and optimization at subsystems consisting of extended clusters of substations. At subsystem level, the infrastructure enables full state feedback for optimal control. Issues of time latency are addressed. Finally, the concepts are extended to the control center where all the functions that coordinate substations and subsystems are exercised. At each one of the three levels (substation, subsystem, control center), defenses against malicious cyber-attacks are integrated. We will discuss data attacks as well as insertion of malicious commands and the integrated intrusion detection methods. The proposed approach and infrastructure forms the basis for the next generation of Energy Management Systems.

Date and Time: 
Thursday, January 26, 2017 - 1:30pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 300

The Role of Demand & Storage in an Integrated Energy System [SmartGrid]

Topic: 
The Role of Demand & Storage in an Integrated Energy System
Abstract / Description: 

As energy systems have evolved from small isolated single energy vector systems into continental scale integrated energy systems the supply demand balance principle is a fundamental law underpinning and shaping their evolution. In an integrated energy system, supply demand balance, is across energy vectors (e.g. fuels, heat, and electricity), across scales/infrastructure (e.g. gas, heat, electricity networks) with and/or without storage capability and with all the consequential losses. In particular the demand side in an integrated energy system is no longer seen as a single energy vector consuming entity but rather as an entity that potentially can derive an energy service from a choice of energy vectors (e.g. hybrid cars), can self-supply (e.g. photovoltaic), can supply others and can store energy for later use. This trend is gaining traction but the direction of travel and the end result is very unclear. The component parts of this uncertainty are regulatory, economic, political and technological. Here the potential role in particular of demand and/or storage in a future integrated energy system is explored with some research results. The need for a more comprehensive, inter disciplinary, international and collaborative research and demonstration programme is highlighted and will be illustrated by reference to the Real Value project.


 

About the SmartGrid Seminar:

Our speakers will discuss exciting new ideas and technologies that are changing the electricity industry. The theme of the seminar series is on smart grids and energy systems, with speakers from academic institutions and industry. The hour-long seminars, including ample time for discussion, are held at 1:30 pm every Thursday. Open to all Stanford students, faculty and staff.

Date and Time: 
Thursday, January 19, 2017 - 1:30pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 300

High-Frequency Power Converters [Precourt Institute for Energy Seminar]

Topic: 
Energy Seminar: High-Frequency Power Converters
Abstract / Description: 

Juan's talk will cover how increases in switching frequency enable the miniaturization of power converters and new ways to fabricate and design power converters. It will address how these design techniques can be used in applications spanning biology, healthcare, space propulsion and automotive that use Wide Bandgap Power semiconductors at MHz frequencies. The talk will also discuss losses observed in GaN and SiC devices under high dv/dt conditions.

Date and Time: 
Monday, January 9, 2017 - 4:30pm to 5:30pm
Venue: 
NVIDIA Auditorium, Jen-Hsun Huang Engineering Center

SmartGrid Seminar: Greening a Top-20 Economy, Energy-Efficient Timely Transportation of Heavy-Duty Trucks

Topic: 
Greening a Top-20 Economy: Energy-Efficient Timely Transportation of Heavy-Duty Trucks
Abstract / Description: 

In 2015, the US trucking industry hauls 70.1% of all freight tonnage and collects $726.4 billion in gross freight revenues. This impressive number corresponds to 2.3x of Hong Kong GDP and would rank 19 worldwide if measured against countries. Meanwhile, only 4% of total vehicle population, heavy-duty trucks consume 17.6% of energy in transportation sector (including cars, trucks, airplanes, pipelines, and railways). This alerting observation, together with that fuel cost is the largest operating cost (34%) for truck operators, makes it critical to reduce fuel consumption for cost-effective and environment-friendly heavy-duty truck operation.

In this work, we consider a key yet under-explored problem in heavy-duty truck operation: timely transportation, where a heavy-duty truck travels between two locations across the national highway system subject to a hard deadline constraint. The objective is to minimize the total fuel consumption of the truck, by optimizing both route planning and speed planning. The problem is important for cost-effective and environment-friendly truck operation, and it is uniquely challenging due to its combinatorial nature as well as the need of considering hard deadline constraint. We first show that the problem is NP-Complete; thus exact solution is computational prohibited unless P=NP. We then design a fully polynomial time approximation scheme (FPTAS) that attains an approximation ratio of 1+ \epsilon with a network-size induced complexity of O(mn^2/\epsilon^2), where m and n are the numbers of nodes and edges, respectively. While achieving highly-preferred theoretical performance guarantee, the proposed FPTAS still suffers from long running time when applying to national-wide highway systems with tens of thousands of nodes and edges. Leveraging elegant insights from studying the dual of the original problem, we design a fast subgradient-like solution with O(m+ n log n) complexity. The proposed heuristic allows us to tackle the energy-efficient timely transportation problem on large-scale national highway systems. We further characterize a condition under which our heuristic generates an optimal solution; we also provide performance gap when the condition is not satisfied. We observe that the condition holds in most of the practical instances in numerical experiments, justifying the superior empirical performance of our heuristic. We carry out extensive numerical experiments using real-world truck data over the actual U.S. highway network. The results show that our proposed solutions achieve 17% (resp. 14%) fuel consumption reduction, as compared to a fastest path (resp. shortest path) algorithm adapted from common practice.
Overall, we believe that de-carbonizing heavy-duty truck operation is important for the sustainable development of the trucking industry. Our work serves as a call for participation.
This is a joint work with Lei Deng and Mohammad Hajiesmaili in CUHK and Haibo Zeng in Virginia Tech.

Date and Time: 
Wednesday, December 14, 2016 - 1:00pm to 2:00pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 270

SmartGrid Seminar: Efficiency of Connection Charges for Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

Topic: 
On the Efficiency of Connection Charges for Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources
Abstract / Description: 

The advent of several disruptive innovations in distributed renewable generation, battery storage, and smart meter technology is transforming the electric power industry. A rising concern of this transformation is the impact of distributed energy resources (DERs) on the financial viability of traditional regulated distribution utilities. In particular, under volumetric and net-metering tariffs, the integration of behind-the-meter DERs, including storage systems, could compromise the ability of grid operators to recover their fixed operational and capital expenditures, which leads to the so-called "death spiral" hypothesis. In this talk, we examine the role of connection charges for a regulated monopolistic retailer who serves heterogeneous consumers. We examine two DER integration models: (i) the behind-the-meter integration by consumers under a net metering tariff, and (ii) a centralized integration by the retailer. For both cases, we obtain the optimal ex-ante two-part tariff consisting of connection and volumetric charges. The structure of the optimal two-part tariff reveals how the benefits and costs of DERs are allocated optimally across consumers. While the optimal two-part tariff yields the same social welfare under the two integration models, the benefits of DER integration are distributed very differently among consumers who have different integration capabilities. Our results also show that the absence of the connection charge, rather than net-metering, is the main cause of economic inefficiency. Results from empirical studies also illustrate the potential gain for consumers when the optimal two-part tariff is adopted.


 

About the SmartGrid Seminar: 

Our speakers will discuss exciting new ideas and technologies that are changing the electricity industry. The theme of the seminar series is on smart grids and energy systems, with speakers from academic institutions and industry. The hour-long seminars, including ample time for discussion, are held at 1:30 pm every Thursday. Open to all Stanford students, faculty and staff.

Date and Time: 
Thursday, December 1, 2016 - 1:30pm to 2:30pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 111

SmartGrid Seminar

Topic: 
Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Storage and Power Flow Solutions
Abstract / Description: 

We present two recent results. In the first result, we use a continuous linearized power flow model for distribution networks and derive the optimal sizing of distributed energy storage devices to minimize power loss and prove several monotonicity properties of the optimal solution when all loads have the same shape. We show through simulations that these structural properties hold approximately in standard discrete nonlinear power flow models, even when loads have different shapes. In the second result, we describe a recent method for computing power flow solutions using monotone operators. The basic idea is to embed an operationally relevant space in a domain of voltages over which the power flow operator is monotone. Such domains are non unique and we show that at most one power flow solution exists in each of these domains. Efficient algorithms, based on solving an associated monotone variational inequality, can compute power flow solutions in the monotonicity domain or certify that none exists in the monotonicity domain. (Joint work with Yujie Tang (Caltech), Krishnamurthy Dvijotham (PNNL), Michael Chertkov (ANL))


About the SmartGrid Seminar: 

Our speakers will discuss exciting new ideas and technologies that are changing the electricity industry. The theme of the seminar series is on smart grids and energy systems, with speakers from academic institutions and industry. The hour-long seminars, including ample time for discussion, are held at 1:30 pm every Thursday. Open to all Stanford students, faculty and staff.

Date and Time: 
Thursday, November 3, 2016 - 1:30pm to 2:30pm
Venue: 
Y2E2 111

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