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Applied Physics / Physics Colloquium

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents Pixels to Physics: The Promise and Challenges of Survey Cosmology

Topic: 
Pixels to Physics: The Promise and Challenges of Survey Cosmology
Abstract / Description: 

We are entering a transformative period in observational cosmology. Large cosmological surveys starting in 2019 promise to solve key problems in cosmology — but only if we develop new approaches for handling the volume and complexity of the data. Extracting robust cosmological information from these surveys is a major challenge that will require development and validation of analysis methods at each step of the chain from raw pixels to cosmology. I will comment on some of the experimental and methodological innovations that are needed to realize the promise of upcoming surveys.


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, March 5, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents New Perspectives on the Riemann Hypothesis

Topic: 
New Perspectives on the Riemann Hypothesis
Abstract / Description: 

The Riemann Hypothesis is widely considered as the greatest unsolved problem in pure mathematics, conjectured nearly over 160 years ago. Its importance is for the many far-reaching implications for the distribution of prime numbers. In this colloquium, I will first review these well-known facts and history, with some emphasis on the appearance of Riemann's zeta function in physics, in particular in quantum statistical mechanics. I will then outline some recent work that offers a clear strategy towards proving the Riemann Hypothesis. One such strategy is based on an analogy with random walks and stochastic time series. As a concrete application of these ideas, I will explain how I calculated the google-th Riemann zero.

This lecture is dedicated to Shoucheng Zhang. In discussions with him in the last year I learned that he had a deep interest and knowledge of this problem, and some interesting ideas about it.


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, February 26, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents The Road to Higher Tc Superconductivity

Topic: 
The Road to Higher Tc Superconductivity
Abstract / Description: 

Unravelling the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity is one of the most challenging problems in physics. Equally challenging is to enhance the superconducting transition temperature Tc, but Tc at ambient conditions has stopped rising for almost 25 years since 135 K was recorded for the Hg-based trilayer cuprate in 1993. However, in recent years, three different classes of high-Tc materials have shown a signature of higher Tc under extreme conditions; monolayer FeSe films deposited on a SrTiO3 substrate, H3S (and LaHx) under extremely high pressures, and YBCO pumped by c-axis polarized THz light pulses. These indicate that there is a room for the Tc–enhancement in the known high-Tc classes, specifically, the cuprate and the iron-based superconducting materials.

The first part of this colloquium addresses the question of why copper oxides and iron arsenides/selenides are special, and then a possibility of finding the third high-Tc materials containing 3d transition-metal elements will be suggested. The second part focusses on the hole-doped high-Tc cuprates, and an attempt to search for a new type of cuprate materials with structures more favorable for higher Tc. A candidate new cuprate is Ba2CuO4-y (and its Sr counterpart Sr2CuO4-y with Tc = 98 K) in which high-Tc superconductivity occurs in highly oxygen-deficient Cu-O planes with high hole density and short apical oxygen distance. A possible structure of this new cuprate will be discussed.


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, February 19, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium welcomes John Doyle

Topic: 
Cold and Ultracold Molecules for Quantum Information and Particle Physics
Abstract / Description: 

TBA


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, February 12, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Adding Numbers and Shuffling Cards"

Topic: 
Adding Numbers and Shuffling Cards
Abstract / Description: 

Just like you folks, (some) mathematicians look at the world and try to make sense of it. For example, when numbers are added in the usual way, 'carries' occur. It is natural to ask "how do the carries go?" How many carries are typical, and if we just had a carry, is it more (or less) likely that the next column will need a carry? It turns out that carries form a Markov chain with an "amazing" Transition matrix. Surprisingly, this same matrix turns up in the analysis of shuffling cards (the "seven shuffles theorem"). I will explain the connection and links to all kinds of other parts of mathematics: for example, sections of generating functions, the Veronese imbedding, Foulkes characters and Hopf algebras. The results "deform" and that is important in the analysis of casino "shelf shuffling machines."


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, February 5, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium welcomes James K. Thompson

Topic: 
Twists, Gaps, and Superradiant Emission on a Millihertz Transition
Abstract / Description: 

I will describe superradiant pulses of light generated from an optical transition that does not normally like to radiate light: the millihertz linewidth optical transition in strontium. This new source of light may allow us to break through long standing thermal and technical limitations on laser frequency stability. The pulses of light are generated by laser cooling and trapping an ensemble of strontium atoms inside a high finesse optical cavity to achieve a large collective enhancement in the radiation rate. We also observe cavity-mediated spin-exchange interactions that manifest as one-axis twisting dynamics and the opening of a many-body energy gap. The spin-exchange interactions may prove useful for creating entanglement between the atoms and enhancing atomic coherence times.


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, January 29, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents Using Quantum Tunneling to Discover New Physics in Two-Dimensional Materials

Topic: 
Using Quantum Tunneling to Discover New Physics in Two-Dimensional Materials
Abstract / Description: 

The remarkable physics of two-dimensional (2D) electronic systems has led to 3 sets of Nobel Prizes (1985, 1998, and 2010) and radically changed our understanding of electrons in materials. Experimenters most often probe these systems using electrical transport measurements involving passing an electrical current through the 2D electronic system and measuring voltages appearing across the sample. Such measurements have revealed amazing behaviors such as the quantum Hall effects and the existence of "edge-states" with quantized conductance. However, these and many other measurements have a main limitation in what they tell us about the system: they only have sensitivity to the behavior of electrons near the Fermi energy. Quantum mechanical tunneling, in contrast, can probe electronic states away from the Fermi level. This talk will introduce a contactless tunneling method that utilizes millions of short electrical pulses to induce tunneling currents into and out of 2D electronic systems and yields precise tunneling spectra of 2D system even in regimes where it is electrically insulating. The measurements have revealed remarkable new physics such as: (1) a sharp resonance in tunneling that arises from vibrations of 2D electrons in a "Wigner Crystal"; (2) structure appearing in tunneling spectra that give a direct measurement of the short-range interactions between electrons; (3) measurement and visualization of the 2D energy levels as a function of momentum; (4) observation of polarons and a novel phonon analog of the vacuum Rabi splitting; and (5) measurement of the unusual spin-polarization of the 2D electronic system in magnetic field.


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, January 22, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents Field Theory, Geometry and Data in Cosmology

Topic: 
Field Theory, Geometry and Data in Cosmology
Abstract / Description: 

Cosmology is a playground for several interesting aspects of theoretical physics. It is a discipline where large quantum effects can change the asymptotics of the spacetime and make it stochastic; where most-recent mathematical techniques can be used to study the fate of very inhomogenous universes, like ours before inflation, and to formulate no-global-singularity theorems; where particle-physics techniques can be applied to predict not only peculiar signals from inflation, but also the distribution of galaxies and extract unprecedented cosmological information from them. I will overview some of these aspects.

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, January 15, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents Big Data Perspective on Quantum Matter

Topic: 
Big Data Perspective on Quantum Matter
Abstract / Description: 

What can we learn about a many-body system when we measure every constituent particle? Current experiments with ultracold atoms provide snapshots of many-body states with single particle resolution. This calls for new approaches to studying quantum many-body systems with a focus on analyzing patterns and using machine learning techniques. I will present a recent application of this method to study magnetic polarons in antiferromagnetic Mott insulators. Results indicate that magnetic polarons can be accurately described as spinon-chargon pairs bound by geometric strings, in close analogy to mesons in QCD as quark-antiquark bound pairs.

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, January 8, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

John G. Linvill Distinguished Seminar on Electronic Systems Technology

Topic: 
Internet of Things and Internet of Energy for Connecting at Any Time and Any Place
Abstract / Description: 

In this presentation, I would like to discuss with you how to establish a sustainable and smart society through the internet of energy for connecting at any time and any place. I suspect that you have heard the phrase, "Internet of Energy" less often. The meaning of this phrase is simple. Because of a ubiquitous energy transmission system, you do not need to worry about a shortage of electric power. One of the most important items for establishing a sustainable society is [...]


"Inaugural Linvill Distinguished Seminar on Electronic Systems Technology," EE News, July 2018

 

Date and Time: 
Monday, January 14, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

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