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Applied Physics / Physics Colloquium

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Adding Numbers and Shuffling Cards"

Topic: 
Adding Numbers and Shuffling Cards
Abstract / Description: 

Just like you folks, (some) mathematicians look at the world and try to make sense of it. For example, when numbers are added in the usual way, 'carries' occur. It is natural to ask "how do the carries go?" How many carries are typical, and if we just had a carry, is it more (or less) likely that the next column will need a carry? It turns out that carries form a Markov chain with an "amazing" Transition matrix. Surprisingly, this same matrix turns up in the analysis of shuffling cards (the "seven shuffles theorem"). I will explain the connection and links to all kinds of other parts of mathematics: for example, sections of generating functions, the Veronese imbedding, Foulkes characters and Hopf algebras. The results "deform" and that is important in the analysis of casino "shelf shuffling machines."


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, February 5, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium welcomes James K. Thompson

Topic: 
Twists, Gaps, and Superradiant Emission on a Millihertz Transition
Abstract / Description: 

I will describe superradiant pulses of light generated from an optical transition that does not normally like to radiate light: the millihertz linewidth optical transition in strontium. This new source of light may allow us to break through long standing thermal and technical limitations on laser frequency stability. The pulses of light are generated by laser cooling and trapping an ensemble of strontium atoms inside a high finesse optical cavity to achieve a large collective enhancement in the radiation rate. We also observe cavity-mediated spin-exchange interactions that manifest as one-axis twisting dynamics and the opening of a many-body energy gap. The spin-exchange interactions may prove useful for creating entanglement between the atoms and enhancing atomic coherence times.


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, January 29, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents Using Quantum Tunneling to Discover New Physics in Two-Dimensional Materials

Topic: 
Using Quantum Tunneling to Discover New Physics in Two-Dimensional Materials
Abstract / Description: 

The remarkable physics of two-dimensional (2D) electronic systems has led to 3 sets of Nobel Prizes (1985, 1998, and 2010) and radically changed our understanding of electrons in materials. Experimenters most often probe these systems using electrical transport measurements involving passing an electrical current through the 2D electronic system and measuring voltages appearing across the sample. Such measurements have revealed amazing behaviors such as the quantum Hall effects and the existence of "edge-states" with quantized conductance. However, these and many other measurements have a main limitation in what they tell us about the system: they only have sensitivity to the behavior of electrons near the Fermi energy. Quantum mechanical tunneling, in contrast, can probe electronic states away from the Fermi level. This talk will introduce a contactless tunneling method that utilizes millions of short electrical pulses to induce tunneling currents into and out of 2D electronic systems and yields precise tunneling spectra of 2D system even in regimes where it is electrically insulating. The measurements have revealed remarkable new physics such as: (1) a sharp resonance in tunneling that arises from vibrations of 2D electrons in a "Wigner Crystal"; (2) structure appearing in tunneling spectra that give a direct measurement of the short-range interactions between electrons; (3) measurement and visualization of the 2D energy levels as a function of momentum; (4) observation of polarons and a novel phonon analog of the vacuum Rabi splitting; and (5) measurement of the unusual spin-polarization of the 2D electronic system in magnetic field.


 

Wtr. Qtr. Colloq. committee: A. Linde (Chair), S. Kivelson, B. Lev, S. Zhang
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 201

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, January 22, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents Field Theory, Geometry and Data in Cosmology

Topic: 
Field Theory, Geometry and Data in Cosmology
Abstract / Description: 

Cosmology is a playground for several interesting aspects of theoretical physics. It is a discipline where large quantum effects can change the asymptotics of the spacetime and make it stochastic; where most-recent mathematical techniques can be used to study the fate of very inhomogenous universes, like ours before inflation, and to formulate no-global-singularity theorems; where particle-physics techniques can be applied to predict not only peculiar signals from inflation, but also the distribution of galaxies and extract unprecedented cosmological information from them. I will overview some of these aspects.

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, January 15, 2019 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents Big Data Perspective on Quantum Matter

Topic: 
Big Data Perspective on Quantum Matter
Abstract / Description: 

What can we learn about a many-body system when we measure every constituent particle? Current experiments with ultracold atoms provide snapshots of many-body states with single particle resolution. This calls for new approaches to studying quantum many-body systems with a focus on analyzing patterns and using machine learning techniques. I will present a recent application of this method to study magnetic polarons in antiferromagnetic Mott insulators. Results indicate that magnetic polarons can be accurately described as spinon-chargon pairs bound by geometric strings, in close analogy to mesons in QCD as quark-antiquark bound pairs.

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, January 8, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 201

John G. Linvill Distinguished Seminar on Electronic Systems Technology

Topic: 
Internet of Things and Internet of Energy for Connecting at Any Time and Any Place
Abstract / Description: 

In this presentation, I would like to discuss with you how to establish a sustainable and smart society through the internet of energy for connecting at any time and any place. I suspect that you have heard the phrase, "Internet of Energy" less often. The meaning of this phrase is simple. Because of a ubiquitous energy transmission system, you do not need to worry about a shortage of electric power. One of the most important items for establishing a sustainable society is [...]


"Inaugural Linvill Distinguished Seminar on Electronic Systems Technology," EE News, July 2018

 

Date and Time: 
Monday, January 14, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

AP483, Ginzton Lab, & AMO Seminar Series presents Impact of Structural Correlation and Monomer Heterogeneity in the Phase Behavior of Soft Materials and Chromosomal DNA

Topic: 
Impact of Structural Correlation and Monomer Heterogeneity in the Phase Behavior of Soft Materials and Chromosomal DNA
Abstract / Description: 

Polymer self-assembly plays a critical role in a range of soft-material applications and in the organization of chromosomal DNA in living cells. In many cases, the polymer chains are composed of incompatible monomers that are not regularly arranged along the chains. The resulting phase segregation exhibits considerable heterogeneity in the microstructures, and the size scale of these morphologies can be comparable to the statistical correlation that arises from the molecular rigidity of the polymer chains. To establish a predictive understanding of these effects, molecular models must retain sufficient detail to capture molecular elasticity and sequence heterogeneity. This talk highlights efforts to capture these effects using analytical theory and computational modeling. First, we demonstrate the impact of structural rigidity on the phase segregation of copolymer chain in the melt phase, resulting in non-universal phase phenomena due to the interplay of concentration fluctuations and structural correlation. We then demonstrate how these effects impact the phase behavior in statistical random copolymers and in heterogeneous copolymers based on chromosomal DNA properties. With these results, we demonstrate that the spatial segregation of DNA in living cells can be predicted using a heterogeneous copolymer model of microphase segregation.

Date and Time: 
Monday, November 5, 2018 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Spilker 232

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium: Quantum mechanical bounds on transport and chaos

Topic: 
Quantum mechanical bounds on transport and chaos
Abstract / Description: 

Transport in strongly quantum systems is challenging to understand. I will describe a recently obtained bound on transport in terms of a characteristic quantum velocity (the Lieb-Robinson velocity) and the local thermalization time. This bound sheds some light on experiments in both condensed matter systems and ultracold atomic gases. At finite temperatures, a more powerful velocity is the so-called butterfly velocity, that is intimately related to quantum chaos. This velocity is still poorly understood; I will present some forthcoming results that constrain the temperature dependence of the butterfly velocity in terms of the underlying quantum scrambling of the system.

Date and Time: 
Monday, October 8, 2018 - 4:15pm
Venue: 
Spilker 232

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents d = 4 N = 2 Field Theory and Physical Mathematics

Topic: 
d = 4 N = 2 Field Theory and Physical Mathematics
Abstract / Description: 

d = 4 N = 2 Field Theory and Physical Mathematics

I will explain the meaning of the two phrases in the title. Much of the talk will be a review of the renowned Seiberg-Witten formulation of the low-energy physics of certain four dimensional supersymmetric interacting quantum field theories. In the latter part of the talk I will briefly describe some of the significant progress that has been made in solving for the so-called BPS sector of the Hilbert space of these theories. Investigations into these physical questions have had a nontrivial impact on mathematics.


 

Aut. Qtr. Colloq. committee: R. Blandford (Chair), A. Kapitulnik, R. Laughlin, L. Senatore
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 200

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, November 27, 2018 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

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