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Applied Physics / Physics Colloquium

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Quantum gas microscopy of ultracold fermions in optical lattices"

Topic: 
Quantum gas microscopy of ultracold fermions in optical lattices
Abstract / Description: 

The normal state of high-temperature superconductors exhibits anomalous transport and spectral properties that are poorly understood. Cold atoms in optical lattices have been used to realize the celebrated Fermi-Hubbard model, widely believed to capture the essential physics of these materials. The recent development of fermionic quantum gas microscopes has enabled studying the normal state of Hubbard systems with single-site resolution. I will start by introducing the atomic platform and reviewing experiments that have been done on measuring spin and density correlations in half-filled systems [1]. Next, I will describe the development of a technique to measure microscopic diffusion, and hence resistivity, in doped Mott insulators. We have found that this resistivity exhibits a linear dependence on temperature and violates the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit, two signatures of strange metallic behavior [2]. Finally, I will describe the development of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) for Hubbard systems and its application to studying pseudogap physics in an attractive Hubbard system, setting the stage for future studies of the pseudogap regime in repulsive Hubbard systems [3].

[1] Parsons et. al., Science 353, 1253 (2016), Boll et. al., Science 353, 1257 (2016), Cheuk et. al., Science 353, 1260 (2016), Brown et. al., 357, 1385 (2017).
[2] Brown et. al., Science 363, 379 (2019).
[3] Brown et. al., Nature Physics, in press, arxiv:1903.05678 (2019).


 

Aut. Qtr. Colloq. committee: R. Blandford (Chair), B. Feldman, A. Kapitulnik, B. Lev and V. Khemani

Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 200

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, November 5, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Tension between early and late universe measurements of H0: Hint of new physics?”

Topic: 
Tension between early and late universe measurements of H0: Hint of new physics?
Abstract / Description: 

In the past few years, a tension has emerged between the current expansion rate of the universe (H0) and the value predicted by early universe probes under the assumption of a standard LCDM cosmology. The tension is statistically significant: combinations of local probes are 4-6 sigma away from H0 as inferred by Planck, for example. Efforts to uncover systematic uncertainties are under way, but they have been unsuccessful so far. If the tension is real, most proposals to resolve it require changing the expansion history before recombination in a non-trivial way, possibly as a result of early dark energy, or sterile neutrinos. I will review measurements of H0, including the results of the well known methods based on the local distance ladder and on the cosmic microwave background. I will explain in detail the approach based on gravitational time delays, that have recently reached comparable precision, providing an independent verification of the tension. I will conclude by discussing the prospects of reaching sub-percent precision on multiple independent methods as a way to control systematics, and verify whether indeed this is the first hint of new physics beyond LCDM.


Aut. Qtr. Colloq. committee: R. Blandford (Chair), B. Feldman, A. Kapitulnik, B. Lev and V. Khemani

Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 200

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, October 29, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Thermoelectric Hall effect and nonlinear Hall effect"

Topic: 
Thermoelectric Hall effect and nonlinear Hall effect
Abstract / Description: 

Studies of various types of Hall effects have led to great advances in solid state physics. In this talk, I will describe two novel Hall phenomena. The first is thermoelectric Hall effect that describes the generation of a transverse electrical current under a temperature gradient. Under a quantizing magnetic field, thermoelectric Hall conductivity is proportional to thermal entropy which is strongly enhanced by Landau level degeneracy. This leads to an unbounded growth of the thermopower in three- dimensional Dirac/Weyl semimetals, a parametrically large thermoelectric figure of merit in quantum Hall systems at low temperature, and a new experimental way to study neutral collective modes in the fractional quantum Hall liquids.

Second, I will discuss a nonlinear Hall effect in nonmagnetic materials at zero magnetic field, where the transverse current depends quadratically on the applied electric field. This effect arises from anomalous velocity in a current-carrying state, driven by Berry curvature in inversion-breaking systems.


 

Aut. Qtr. Colloq. committee: R. Blandford (Chair), B. Feldman, A. Kapitulnik, B. Lev and V. Khemani
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 200

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, October 22, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Circuit QED: Quantum Sensing, Information Processing and Error Correction with Microwave Photons"

Topic: 
Circuit QED: Quantum Sensing, Information Processing and Error Correction with Microwave Photons
Abstract / Description: 

'Circuit quantum electrodynamics' is the theory of non-linear quantum optics extended to the study of microwave photons strongly interacting with 'artificial atoms' (Josephson junction qubits) embedded in superconducting electrical circuits. Recent remarkable theoretical and experimental progress in our ability to measure and manipulate the quantum states of individual microwave photons is leading to novel applications ranging from accelerating dark matter searches to quantum error correction that, for the first time in any technology, has successfully extended the lifetime of quantum information. This talk will present an elementary introduction to the basic concepts underlying circuit QED and describe several recent novel experiments demonstrating these new found capabilities.


 

Aut. Qtr. Colloq. committee: R. Blandford (Chair), B. Feldman, A. Kapitulnik, B. Lev and V. Khemani
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 200

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, October 15, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Quantum Sensing and Imaging with Diamond Spins"

Topic: 
Quantum Sensing and Imaging with Diamond Spins
Abstract / Description: 

Quantum sensors based on optically addressable solid-state spins are powerful tools that offer high sensitivity, nanoscale spatial resolution, and quantitative field information. The nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond is the most advanced such sensor because of its robust, room-temperature coherence and its high sensitivity to a variety of fields: magnetic, electric, thermal, and strain. Here I discuss an NV-based imaging platform where we have incorporated an NV center into a scanning probe microscope and used it to image skyrmions, nanoscale topological spin textures. I also discuss recent experiments that utilize the NV center's sensitivity to fluctuating magnetic fields to image conductivity with nanoscale spatial resolution. A grand challenge to improving the spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity of the NV is mitigating surface-induced quantum decoherence, which I will discuss in the second part of this talk. Decoherence at interfaces is a universal problem that affects many quantum technologies, but the microscopic origins are as yet unclear. Our studies guide the ongoing development of quantum control and materials control, pushing towards the ultimate goal of NV-based single nuclear spin imaging.


 

Aut. Qtr. Colloq. committee: R. Blandford (Chair), B. Feldman, A. Kapitulnik, B. Lev and V. Khemani
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 200

 

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, October 8, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Choreographing Quantum Spin Dynamics with Light"

Topic: 
Choreographing Quantum Spin Dynamics with Light
Abstract / Description: 

The power of quantum information lies in its capacity to be non-local, encoded in correlations among two, three, or many entangled particles. Yet our ability to produce, understand, and exploit such correlations is hampered by the fact that the interactions between particles and ordinarily local. I will report on experiments in which we use light to induce long-range interactions among cold atoms, with photons acting either as messengers or as a means of coupling to highly polarizable Rydberg states. The combination of optically programmable interactions with imaging of spin dynamics opens new opportunities in areas ranging from quantum-enhanced sensing to quantum simulation. As an illustrative example, I will touch on prospects for building and probing toy models for information scrambling in black holes.


 

Aut. Qtr. Colloq. committee: R. Blandford (Chair), B. Feldman, A. Kapitulnik, B. Lev and V. Khemani
Location: Hewlett Teaching Center, Rm. 200

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, October 1, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

Applied Physics/Physics Colloquium presents "Earthquake and Tsunami Physics"

Topic: 
Earthquake and Tsunami Physics
Abstract / Description: 

Earthquakes are a familiar hazard to those of us in California. This talk explores our understanding of processes governing earthquake occurrence, starting from the basics of elasticity and friction and expanding to encompass behavior of fluid-saturated granular material in fault zones, geometric complexity of faults, shear heating and viscoelastic behavior of rocks, and fluid transport and pore fluid pressure evolution along fault zones. We'll examine why earthquakes are so unpredictable, how frictional sliding occurs without pervasively melting rocks, and some open questions regarding tsunami generation by offshore earthquakes. My group tackles these questions through development of continuum mechanics based models and computer simulations.

 

Date and Time: 
Tuesday, September 24, 2019 - 4:30pm
Venue: 
Hewlett 200

Physical Sciences Approaches to Analyze Tumor-Associated ECM Dynamics

Topic: 
Physical Sciences Approaches to Analyze Tumor-Associated ECM Dynamics
Abstract / Description: 

Stanford Center for Cancer Systems Biology (CCSB) presents:

Claudia Fischbach-Teschl, PhD
Professor, Nancy E. and Peter C. Meinig School of Biomedical Engineering
Director, Cornell Center on the Physics of Cancer Metabolism Cornell University

"Physical Sciences Approaches to Analyze Tumor-Associated ECM Dynamics"

ABSTRACT:
Microenvironmental conditions contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and include altered cellular composition, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and mechanical cues. However, our understanding of the specific mechanisms by which these microenvironmental perturbations impact the development, progression, and therapy response of cancer is relatively limited. More intricate models are needed to better understand the complex biochemical and biophysical interactions that drive tumor initiation, growth, metastasis, metabolic adaptation, and immune evasion. The fields of biomaterials and tissue engineering provide increasingly sophisticated tools and strategies to recapitulate and monitor relevant properties of tumor-microenvironment interactions.


These approaches not only bear tremendous potential to advance our current understanding of cancer, but are also increasingly explored for more clinically relevant drug testing. Indeed, combining patient-specific cells with engineered culture systems promises to enhance the predictive power of precision medicine pipelines. This talk will highlight specific examples of how the microenvironment regulates the highly dynamic nature of cancer and will outline opportunities and challenges of the field of tumor engineering.

Date and Time: 
Thursday, May 23, 2019 - 2:30pm
Venue: 
Clark Center - S360

KIPAC welcomes Professor Jo Dunkley

Topic: 
Our Universe
Abstract / Description: 

Most of us have heard of black holes and supernovas, galaxies and the Big Bang. But few of us understand more than the bare facts about the universe we call home. What is really out there? How did it all begin? Where are we going? Jo Dunkley begins in Earth's neighborhood, explaining the nature of the Solar System, the stars in our night sky, and the Milky Way. She then moves out past nearby galaxies and back in time to the horizon of the observable universe, which contains over a hundred billion galaxies, each with billions of stars, many orbited by planets, some of which may host life. Dunkley traces the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang fourteen billion years ago, past the birth of the Sun and our planets, to today and beyond.

Date and Time: 
Thursday, May 9, 2019 - 7:00pm
Venue: 
Hewlett Building

#StanfordToo: A Conversation about Sexual Harassment in Our Academic Spaces

Topic: 
#StanfordToo: A Conversation about Sexual Harassment in Our Academic Spaces
Abstract / Description: 

Individuals of all genders invited to be a part of:
#StanfordToo: A Conversation about Sexual Harassment in Our Academic Spaces, where we will feature real stories of harassment at Stanford academic STEM in a conversation with Provost Drell, Dean Minor (SoM), and Dean Graham (SE3). We will have plenty of time for audience discussion on how we can take concrete action to dismantle this culture and actively work towards a more inclusive Stanford for everyone. While our emphasis is on STEM fields, we welcome and encourage participation from students, postdocs, staff, and faculty of all academic disciplines and backgrounds.

Date and Time: 
Friday, April 19, 2019 - 3:30pm
Venue: 
STLC 111

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