We address recent achievements in Vertical–Cavity Surface–Emitting Lasers for data communication. (i) Recent concepts for high speed VCSEL operation include anti–waveguiding cavity design with AlAs–rich core, further increased optical confinement factor, engineering of the density of states, thick oxide apertures and superlattice barriers aimed at prevention of the leakage of nonequilibrium carriers. Serial data transmission up to 50Gb/s is realized in laser modules without preemphasis and equalization. The expected lifetime of such VCSELs exceeds 10 years at 95oC. (ii) Electrooptically–modulated VCSELs allow optical modulation bandwidth beyond 35GHz and electrical bandwidth exceeding 60GHz. So far error-free digital data transmission at 10Gb/s is realized. With effort 100 Gb/s operation at a low current density and ultralow power consumption can become feasible. (iii) VCSEL design may allow uncooled wavelength multiplexing, for example within the narrow 840–860 nm spectral range of low modal dispersion of the standard multimode fiber. Complete temperature stability of the VCSEL is achieved due to the passive cavity concept. The gain medium is placed in the region of the bottom semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) while the further part of the bottom DBR, the cavity region and the top DBR are made of dielectric materials. Due to the virtually no dependence of the refractive index on temperature at certain dielectric compositions, a temperature stabilized operation without cooling becomes possible. Furthermore, due to dielectric DBRs and a cavity offer a high optical confinement factor even for InP-based 1300nm - 1550nm VCSELs extending the range of VCSEL applications. (iv) Single mode VCSELs at moderate oxide diameters of the oxide aperture (5-6 µm), fully compatible to the standard technology, are feasible by the optical field engineering in the oxidized part. The leakage is engineered to suppress the high order transverse optical modes. The effect is achieved by a proper positioning of thick aperture oxide layers, inducing an optical mode suitable for the leakage. The mode engineering effect can be also used, as opposite, to create a 3D confinement of the optical modes in the microcavity allowing a long lifetime of the VCSEL modes in a broad spectral range allowing, for example, near field VCSEL. (v) Single mode operation allows to overcome effects related to significant spectral dispersion of the multimode fiber (MMF) in the 840–860 nm range. A 1000 m error–free transmission at 25Gb/s is realized in parallel MMF links using single mode VCSEL arrays in combination with commercially available array electronics and standard optical couplers assembled into parallel 12-channel transceiver and receiver boards.
This seminar is sponsored by Stanford OSA
Bio: Nikolay N. Ledentsov received the diploma degree in electrical engineering from the Electrical Engineering Institute (LETI) in 1982, and the Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) and Doctor of Sciences (Habil.) degrees in physics and mathematics from the A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, in 1987 and 1994, respectively.He has been a Professor of Electrical Engineering with LETI since 1994, and a Professor of Physics and Mathematics with the A. F. Ioffe Institute since 2005. He is currently the Chief Executive Officer at VI Systems GmbH, the company he founded in 2007. His major scientific interests are in the field of physics and technology of semiconductor nanostructures and the related optoelectronic devices. He is a first author of the paper on the first lasing in quantum dots (Semiconductors, submitted in 1993). He has co-authored more than 800 papers in leading technical journals and conference proceedings, and 30 patent families. His Hirsch factor is above 70. He is a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the Institute of Physics. Prof. Ledentsov was a recipient of the Young Scientist Award from the International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (1996) for pioneering contributions to the field of quantum dots and quantum dot lasers, the State Prize of Russia for Science and Technology (2001), the Prize of the Berlin- Brandenburg Academy of Sciences (2002), and other awards and recognitions.