Sabnis, H. V. Demir, O. Fidaner,
Zheng, J. S. Harris, Jr., D. A. B. Miller, N. Li, Ta-Chung Wu, H.-T.
Chen and Yu-Min Houng, "Intimate
monolithic integration of chip-scale photonic circuits," IEEE J. Sel.
Top. Quantum Electron. 11, No.
6, 1244 – 1265 (2005)
In this paper, we introduce a
robust monolithic integration technique for fabricating photonic
integrated circuits comprising optoelectronic devices (e.g.,
surface-illuminated photodetectors, waveguide quantum-well modulators,
etc.) that are made of completely separate epitaxial structures and
possibly reside at different locations across the wafer as necessary.
Our technique is based on the combination of multiple crystal growth
steps, judicious placement of epitaxial etch-stop layers, a carefully
designed etch sequence, and self-planarization and passivation steps to
compactly integrate optoelectronic devices. This multigrowth integration
technique is broadly applicable to most III-V materials and can be
exploited to fabricate sophisticated, highly integrated, multifunctional
photonic integrated circuits on a single substrate. As a successful
demonstration of this technique, we describe integrated photonic
switches that consume only a 300 /spl times/300 /spl mu/m footprint and
incorporate InGaAs photodetector mesas and InGaAsP/InP quantum-well
modulator waveguides separated by 50 /spl mu/m on an InP substrate.
These switches perform electrically-reconfigurable optically-controlled
wavelength conversion at multi-Gb/s data rates over the entire center
telecommunication wavelength band.
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