||D. A. B. Miller, "Dense Two-Dimensional
Integration of Optoelectronics and Electronics for Interconnections," presented at
the Critical Reviews Conference of SPIEs Symp. on Photonics West, Optoelectronics
98, San Jose, CA (January 24-30, 1998). Published in Heterogeneous Integration:
Systems on a Chip, Anis Husain and Mahmoud Fallahi, Eds. SPIE Critical Reviews of
Optical Engineering, Vol. CR70 (SPIE, Bellingham, 1998), 80-109.
many features, beyond those already exploited in long-distance fiber communications, that
make it interesting for interconnections at short distance, including dense optical
interconnections directly to silicon integrated circuit chips. Hybrid technologies, such
as solder-bump bonding, have recently been successfully used to attach two-dimensional
arrays of optical detectors, emitters, and modulators to silicon electronics. Quantum well
modulator or self-electro-optic-effect devices (SEEDs), and vertical-cavity
surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have received particularly strong attention as candidates
for the necessary arrayed output devices. This article summarizes the research and
prospects in these fields.
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