Searching

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Searching Wikipedia

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This article provides a detailed overview of Wikipedia's search feature (in the upper left corner of a Wikipedia window.) (There is also a special Search box, which is customizable to search in one or more desired namespaces.) It also includes instructions on using external search engines, such as Google, to find information. For a short introduction to searching Wikipedia, see Look it up.

Contents:
1 Wikipedia search
2 External search engines
3 Browser-specific help
4 Searching with TomeRaider
5 Using Wikimedia search to find category intersections
6 If you cannot find an appropriate page on Wikipedia
7 See also

Wikipedia search

Template:HelpTOC

Type your keywords in the box to the left under "search" and then click:


Tips for effective searches

Phrases in double quotes -- exact match only

A phrase can easily be found by enclosing it in double quotes. For example, "holly dolly" returns six matches; holly dolly (two standalone words) returns 197.

Go is case sensitive

Template:Main The "go" function uses an algorithm to decide what page you're likely to be interested in, and this usually masks its case sensitivity - but not always.

Avoid short and common words

If your search terms include a common stop word (such as the, your, more, right, while, when, who, which, such, every, about), you may see many irrelevant results. Previously, Wikipedia's search function could not search for such words. Since February 2006, Wikipedia's Lucene index does not filter out stop words, so any word can be processed in search queries.

Wildcards and Boolean searching

Wikipedia's search feature uses Boolean fulltext search. Please exercise self-restraint when using wildcard characters, as they take a toll on the server. See Boolean fulltext search for details on their use.

Words with special characters

Template:Main In a search for a word with a diaeresis, such as Sint Odiliënberg, it depends whether this ë is stored as one character or as "ë". In the first case one can simply search for Odilienberg (or Odiliënberg); in the second case it can only be found by searching for Odili, euml and/or nberg. This is actually a bug that should be fixed -- the entities should be folded into their raw character equivalents so all searches on them are equivalent.

Words in single quotes

If a word appears in an article with single quotes, you can only find it if you search for the word with quotes. Since this is rarely desirable, it is better to use double quotes in articles for which this problem does not arise. See the manual of style for more info.

An apostrophe is identical to a single quote, therefore the name Mu'ammar can be found only by searching for exactly that (and not otherwise). A word with 's is an exception in that it can be found also by searching for the word without the apostrophe and the s.

Namespaces

The search only applies to the namespaces selected in the user's preferences.

To search in a particular namespace, insert its prefix with a colon, for example template:checkmark will search for "checkmark" in template namespace. Use all: prefix to search in all namespaces.

To search in any subset of namespaces, use the advanced search form, which appears at the bottom of a search results page, if a search is unsuccessful. Depending on the web browser in use, a box may still be checked from a previous search, but without being effective any longer! To make sure, uncheck and then recheck it.

Searching the image namespace means searching the image descriptions, i.e. the first parts of the image description pages.

The source text is searched

The source text (what one sees in the edit box, also called wiki text) is searched. This distinction is relevant for piped links, for interlanguage links (to find links to Chinese articles, search for zh, not for Zhongwen), special characters (if ê is coded as ê it is found searching for ecirc), etc.

Delay in updating the search index

For reasons of efficiency and priority, very recent changes are not always immediately taken into account in searches.

Multi-lingual Wikipedia search

Definitions

If you're looking for a straight definition, try our sister project Wiktionary. For definitions of terms used in Wikipedia, check out the glossary or the tutorial's glossary.

Searching for external links

Special:Linksearch is a tool for searching for links from Wikipedia articles to sites outside Wikipedia. For example, all Wikipedia pages linking to Yahoo.com.

Display of search results

Logged in users can choose how much context and how many hits per page to display with a parameter in "My Preferences".

External search engines

Various search engines can provide domain-specific searches, which let you search Wikipedia specifically. Searches are based on the text as shown by the browser, so wiki markup is irrelevant. Depending on your browser, you may also be able to use tools that allow you to search Wikipedia using bookmarklets.

In general, external search engines are faster than a Wikipedia search. However, because the search engine's cache is based on when the site was indexed, the search may not return newly created pages. Similarly, the search engine's cached version of the page will not be as up-to-date as the link to Wikipedia itself. Also, when returning Wikipedia articles in a regular search, mirrors and forks of Wikipedia content frequently rank higher than the actual Wikipedia articles because of search engine optimization techniques.

These issues may be less of a problem when using certain search engines that process Wikipedia differently:

  • Google tends to include Wikipedia as part of its normal search, and it comes up fairly accurately.
  • Yahoo! includes Wikipedia as part of its content acquisition program and gets a regular datafeed.
  • Clusty downloads and processes the database regularly, generating automatic abstracts and image thumbnails and meaningfully parsing redirects, disambiguations, and categories.
  • Qwika only indexes wikis, and thus mirrors do not appear in their results.

Wikimedia-Search

Clusty

By following the link below, you can use the Clusty search engine to search and cluster Wikipedia in English only.

If you frequently search via Clusty, consider installing the Clusty Toolbar (beta). Selecting the "Encyclopedia" search source allows you to quickly search the English version of Wikipedia. The Clusty Toolbar is available for Windows with Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox (beta).

Futef

FUTEF is a site, currently in beta, limited to Wikipedia content. Besides basic keyword and full text search providing a list of relevant articles, it also lists related categories in a sidebar.

Google

By following the links below, you can use the Google search engine to search Wikipedia - either all languages, or English-only. Google indexes all namespaces except article talk.

If you frequently search via Google, consider installing the Google Toolbar. Using the "search this site" button allows you to quickly search the English version of Wikipedia. The official Google Toolbar is available in versions for Firefox (Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows), and Internet Explorer (Microsoft Windows).

How to provide a link to a specific Google Search

Wikipedia markup allows you to insert links to Google searches by including google: as the prefix for the link. This can sometimes be useful on talk pages. It is done like this:

[[google:Tipster]].

Which looks like this:

google:Tipster

Note: It is important not to use spaces in the search. To add more parameters to the search, separate them by a plus sign, +. For a phrase search, use a hyphen (minus sign), -, between each word. E.g. to search for "Tip of the day", use Tip-of-the-day.

To provide a link to a Wikipedia-specific search, include in the google-link +site:en.wikipedia.org (no spaces before or after), like this:

[[google:Tip-of-the-day+site:en.wikipedia.org]].

Which looks like this:

google:Tip-of-the-day+site:en.wikipedia.org

To clean up the link so that only the part you want to show is presented, use the pipe, like this:

[[google:Tipster+site:en.wikipedia.org|"Tip of the day"]]

Which makes it look like this:

"Tip of the day"

Google templates

Several templates are available for creating links to various kinds of Google searches and services. These templates allow more options, such as to search for specific keywords, to link to initially blank search forms, and to search on a specific Web site or on a subdirectory within a site. These templates also allow spaces to separate multiple search keywords, so you don't need to use unusual punctuation. Since these templates create links to Google searches, they cannot search on Wikipedia's Talk: namespace (i.e., article talk pages). These searches should work on non-article talk pages. See the documentation for each template for usage details and examples:

In most cases you should not use these templates in articles because they violate WP:EL#Links normally to be avoided. They are appropriate for pages in other namespaces, such as talk pages, the Help desk, project pages, and so on. If you just want to run some searches without necessarily creating links to them, see the template pages which provide some example search links.

LuMriX

LuMriX is a dynamic query tool which uses lookahead to predict search terms in a list, similar to Google Suggest.

By following the link below, you can use the LuMriX search engine to search different language versions of Wikipedia.

If you frequently search via LuMriX, consider installing the LuMriX Firefox Search Plugin (works on all operating system platforms for which Firefox is available, such as Windows, Linux and Mac OS X).

Lycos

There is a full-featured advanced search engine at Lycos UK. It is more powerful than Wikipedia's search box, and you can limit searches to a specific URL, such as the Wikipedia website. Here's how. Click on the provided link above, and then enter your search term. Then scroll down to the domain section and add "wikipedia.org" in the box provided. Then click "Go".

Qwika

Qwika is designed specifically to index wikis. Its main index is Wikipedia and includes:

This can assist editors contributing to non-English Wikipedias by being able to search in their own language across the entire English version and then view the machine-translated version in their language.

Wikiwax

Wikiwax is a dynamic query like LuMriX. It only searches English Wikipedia, but shows more list entries.

Yahoo!

By following the links below, you can use the Yahoo! search engine to search Wikipedia - either all languages or English-only.

If you frequently search via Yahoo!, consider installing the Yahoo! Companion Toolbar. Using the "Search Only the Current Site" button allows you to quickly search the English version of Wikipedia. The official Yahoo! Companion Toolbar is only for Windows with Internet Explorer and Mozilla.

Other

Here are more Wikipedia:Tools which make searching more convenient.

Browser-specific help

Wikipedia's search plugin for the search bar (Firefox 2.x, Internet Explorer 7.x)

All Wikipedia pages offer to add the Wikipedia search plugin for OpenSearch standard compatible browsers (Internet Explorer 7.x, Firefox 2.x). This means, that you do not need special plugins any longer.

The offer of the search plugin is signalled on any page by a technique called "Auto-discovery".

  • on Firefox browsers since version 2.0 the symbol of the currently selected search engine (Google's G in the example) gets blueish. The user can choose to add the search engine offered by that page by clicking the small triangle:
File:Dewiki-searchplugin-blueish-autodiscovery.png
  • on Internet Explorer 7 the color of the search bar arrow symbol changes to orange.

Wikipedia's suggesting search plugin (currently only for Firefox 2.0)

Wikipedia suggests articles matching your entry as you type in Firefox since version 2.x only; this function is not available in Internet Explorer 7.0. The example is shown for the German Wikipedia but is also available in many others. The function also works for the other Namespaces, so that you also can search for User:Kreuzbe and so on. The screenshot shows the response of the German Wikipedia after the user has typed kreuzbe:

File:Dewiki-suggesting-searchplugin.png

Using Mozilla to automatically search

Listed below are ways to search Wikipedia with Mozilla-based browsers, including Mozilla Suite, Mozilla Firefox, and Netscape 6 and 7.

Search Wikipedia from the sidebar or address bar

Works with: Mozilla Suite, Mozilla Firefox, Netscape 6/7.

Mozilla and Netscape 6 & 7 come with a sidebar that allows a user to search the Wikipedia site, and Firefox has a toolbar item to do the same. To install the search plugin that tells Mozilla how to search Wikipedia, do the following:

  1. Go to one of the following sources of Wikipedia search plugins. The Mycroft plugins are sometimes out of date, and plugins from the second source may work better.
    1. Original search plugins from Mycroft
    2. Updated search plugins
  2. There are versions for many languages, so pick the language local to your area.
  3. If JavaScript is enabled, clicking on the name of the search plugin will automatically install the search plugin.
  4. If you can't install the search plugin automatically, the second source above lets you right-click on the plugin and save it to disk, or download a ZIP file containing all available plugins. Save the downloaded .src file in the searchplugins directory where Mozilla is installed and restart the browser to use the new plugin.

To make Wikipedia your default search engine in Mozilla, Beonex Communicator, and Netscape 6/7:

  1. Go to Edit, Preferences.
  2. Expand the Navigator tree and choose Internet Search.
  3. Choose Wikipedia as your default search engine.

With Wikipedia selected as your default engine, searches can be conducted via the search sidebar tab, search box, or the web address bar.

Search Wikipedia using a custom keyword

Works with: Mozilla Suite, Mozilla Firefox, Netscape 6/7, Beonex Communicator, Camino.

Wikipedia can also be searched via a custom keyword.

  1. Create a new bookmark (Bookmarks/Manage Bookmarks/New Bookmark in Firefox)
  2. Enter "Wikipedia Quicksearch" for the name (without the quotes).
  3. Enter one of the following for the location, again without quotes:
    • "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=%s" to search the English Wikipedia
    • "http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=%s" to search the German Wikipedia
    • "http://www.google.com/search?q=site:wikipedia.org+%s" to use Google to search all Wikipedias
  4. Enter "w" (without the quotes) for the keyword.
  5. Click OK.

To search, go to the web address bar (Ctrl-L), enter "w SEARCH_QUERY" (without the quotes), and press Enter.

Many versions of Firefox include this wikipedia quicksearch by default, but use "wp SEARCH_QUERY" instead of the form mentioned above.

Note: This can also be done with Opera and Internet Explorer, see below.

Searching with bookmarklets

Javascript can bring additional functionality to your bookmark. The following javascript can be pasted in as the 'Location' of a new bookmark created manually, for example in the 'Manage Bookmarks' window of Firefox. If you highlight a word in a webpage then hit the new bookmark, javascript grabs the word you have selected and uses that to perform the search. If no word is highlighted, you will be prompted to enter one.

javascript:x=escape(getSelection());if(!x)%7Bvoid(x=prompt('Enter%20Word:',''))%7D;if(x)window. location='http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search='+x

The whole thing should be pasted in as a single line without spaces for it to work.

Internet Explorer

To enable a quick search from the Windows and Internet Explorer Address bars, do the following

  1. Open Notepad.
  2. Insert all of the text in the box below this list of steps.
  3. Choose File | Save as and save the file as "wikipedia.reg" (either use quote marks around the file name or choose All Files from the Save as type drop-down in Notepad's Save dialog).
  4. Double-click on the "wikipedia.reg" file to add the key to your Windows Registry.
Windows Registry Editor Version 5.00

[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\SearchUrl\w]
@="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=%s"
" "="+"
"#"="%23"
"&"="%26"
"?"="%3F"
"+"="%2B"
"="="%3D"

This will allow you to for example type "w french revolution" (without the quotes) into the Windows and Internet Explorer Address bars to immediately search Wikipedia for the search term you've specified.

Note: There are other URLs you can specify instead of the Default (@) key given above. For instance, the line

@="http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=%s"

will search the German Wikipedia and

@="http://www.google.com/search?q=site:wikipedia.org+%s"

will use Google to search all language Wikipedias.

Safari + Saft

Works with: Safari plus the Saft plugin <ref>"Saft plugin for Safari browser"</ref>

Results similar to those described for Mozilla can be attained with Safari and Saft. In the Preferences menu of Safari, choose the Saft section, then the Shortcuts tab. Click Add and enter "Wikipedia" (without the quotes) for the name, with "w" (again, no quotes) for the shortcut. The URL is similar to those listed above, with a change in the last character. Enter the text below in the URL field.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=%@

Click OK, and close the preferences window. Now typing "w" followed by a space and your search term in the address bar of Safari will take you immediately to your search results. This can be easily altered to search Wikipedia in other languages.

Opera

From version 9.5, Opera has Wikipedia added as a default search option from the search interface in the menu to the right of the address bar. It is also possible to search by typing the keyword 'w' in the address bar; for example, "w opera web browser" to search Wikipedia for information about Opera.

Previous versions

From version 9, Opera can automatically generate a custom search engine from any search box. To add a Wikipedia QuickSearch:

  • Right click in the text box and click "Create search..."
  • Choose a keyword. This can be any length, but the shorter the better. (For example 'w' is better than, say, 'wiki'. Also note that the default key for download.com (pre 9.5) is 'w' so if you wish to use 'w' you will need to change download.com's search first.)
  • In the expanded view (click "Details >>") there is also an option to use this engine as the default. This means that upon highlighting some text and right clicking, clicking "Search" will search Wikipedia.
  • The engine will appear in the menu to the right of the address bar. Furthermore a search can be initiated by typing "<keyword> <search terms>" into the address bar; for example, "w opera web browser" to search Wikipedia for information about Opera.
  • Alternatively, engines can be added manually in the Search tab of Preferences. Click the "Add..." button and enter the following information:
Name: &Wikipedia
Keyword: w
Address: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=%s

All Opera versions since v6 use a customizable text file called search.ini. This file should only be edited while Opera is not running. The following example replaces one of the existing pre-defined search engines. It is up to the user to avoid conflicts of shortcut key (key=). By default 'w' is taken by the download.com search, so either this or the Wikipedia one should be changed. Furthermore the 'Search Engine ##' should be replaced with a free number: '12' is free by default. The Search.ini editor (see link below, in the "More information" section) makes editing trivial.

[Search Engine ##]
Name=&Wikipedia
URL=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=%s
Query=
Key=w
Is post=0
Has endseparator=0
Encoding=utf-8
Search Type=8
  • Opera 8 appears to take a copy of the "search.ini" and load it into an internal buffer of some type. After editing the file with your new entry you must change the "File Version" at the top of the file to allow for your changes to be seen in the browser.
  • In Opera 7.0, you should back up your customized search.ini because the file is overwritten by the Opera installer. This is no longer true in 7.10 and later.
  • In Opera 6 and 7.0, the menu accelerator letter is defined by the & in the name. In current versions the accelerator is automatically generated and may no longer be the same as the key.

More information

K-Meleon

K-Meleon has a search button that can be used to search Google. You can change it to search Wikipedia instead, by doing this:

  1. Close K-Meleon.
  2. Open up prefs.js with a text editor. The file should be in your K-Meleon\Profiles\PROFILE_NAME\RANDOM_STRING.slt\ directory.
  3. Add this line, and save prefs.js.

user_pref("kmeleon.general.searchEngine", "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:Search?search=");

Open up K-Meleon and press the search button to search Wikipedia. To go back to Google or to use another search service, edit prefs.js and delete the added line

Make sure K-Meleon is closed before editing prefs.js.

Avant

Avant supports quick searching from the address bar as well. You can access the settings in the "Search Engine" dialog of the Avant Browser Options. There, you will be presented with two tabs: in the "Quick Search" tab, simply click "Add", type a keyword and press Enter, type the URL string ending in %s (the same as in Mozilla/Firefox) and press Enter again.

Searching with TomeRaider

After downloading the Wikipedia:TomeRaider database one can search the Wikipedia version offline. One can also search for parts of words.

To search the text that appears only in the page history, you must export the text to XML format first.

Using Wikimedia search to find category intersections

As of April 2008 it is possible to use the Search tool to find category intersections. To do so, type +incategory:"CategoryName" in the search box. For example +incategory:"Suspension bridges" +incategory:"Bridges in New York City" will return the articles that are common to both categories — the suspension bridges in New York City.

If you cannot find an appropriate page on Wikipedia

If there is no appropriate page on Wikipedia, consider creating a page, since you can edit Wikipedia right now. Or consider adding what you were looking for to the Requested articles page. Or if you have a question, then see Where to ask questions, which is a list of departments where our volunteers answer questions, any question you can possibly imagine.

See also

Notes

Template:Reflist

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